ORIGIN OF THE JUKUN KWARARAFA KINGDOM
The origin of the Jukun Kwararafa kingdom is not clear. However, more population of the people claim that the Jukun are related to the Kanuri of Borno. According to this version, both (Jukun and Kanuri) came from YEMEN in Arabia. When they arrived at Borno, Jukun continued to move and finally settled at Gongola Benue Basin. While in this area the Jukun suffered military attack from Kano and Zaria. The frequent attack forced the Jukun to establish a strong kingdom and from the 18th century became very strong militarily.
THE JUKUN MILITARY CAMPAIGNS
During the first half of the 17th century, the Jukun attacked Kano in 1635. The Jukun again attacked and capture Kano by the end of 17th century. Similarly by the end of the 16th century Zaria had been conquered and became a tributary state to the Jukun. In 1671 Katsina was attacked by the Jukun. In 1680 the Jukun kingdom attacked Bezebel, the capital of Borno. However, in those two attacks against Borno, they were not successful and a peace treaty had to be signed between the two kingdoms.
FACTORS FOR THE RISE OF THE JUKUN KWARARAFS KINGDOM
There are two main factors that led to the rise of the Jukun Kwararafa kingdom. They are: military and leadership.
- MILITARY :
The major factor for the rise to prominence of the Jukun kingdom was their use of Cavalrymen and barter. The kingdom during their earlier encounter with Kano and Zaria found effectiveness of using horses in battles. They adopted the use of horses for battle and they were successful.
- LEADERSHIP :
The Jukun king was divine. He was highly obeyed and looked at as a religious leader drained by God. The king (AKU) use his spiritual influence to bring all the different tribes in the kingdom together. Under the leadership of AKU, they conquered far and wide but the kingdom profoundly declined by the end of the 18th century. By the first decade of the 19th century the kingdom had been reduce to a cereal state of Borno and was absorbed into the Fulani emirate of Nuru.